Medical background

Understanding the medical base of 8sense

8sense focusses on primary and secondary prevention of back pain. Therefore, the 8sense users will be supported in conducting an active lifestyle. The 8clip can be connected with different coaching systems (8sense – better sitting, 8sense – better training, 8sense – better lifting). The following paper explains the medical background on which the three coaching systems are based on.

8sense- better sitting

8sense aims to foster a more active daily life, dynamic sitting behavior and the users’ awareness of their own sitting behavior. Current studies report, that there is no single recommended sitting position. Some sitting positions, such as the upright one, cause less load on the intervertebral discs of the lower back compared to an arched sitting position (Huang et al.,2016). Moreover, the leaned back sitting position disburdens the intervertebral discs as well as the musculature of the back (Pape et al.,2018). Nevertheless, no static posture should be taken too long. Static sitting behavior is related to a higher risk of back pain (Zemp et al.,2016). Back pain during the last 24 hours is related
with a more static sitting behavior (Zemp et al., 2016). Thus, it’s important to change the sitting position as often as possible, to reduce the time spent sitting and to stand up more often (Barone Gibbs et al.,2018). This active behavior enhances the intervertebral discs’ diffusion and therefore, the intervertebral discs’ nutrition as well.

The individual, daily sitting behavior as well as the ratio between sitting, standing and walking per day is presented to each user via the app better sitting. Based on this data recommendations concerning physical exercise are given, in order to inspire and motivate the users to integrate more movements in their daily work routine.

8sense – Better training

The 8sense training program better training is based on a fitness test, inspired by the “Alltags-Fitness-Test des Deutschen Olympischen Sportbundes” (Becker, 2016). Moreover, the users are screened by using an anamnesis and two tests analyzing the individual stress level and the relaxing ability. Based on this data, a workout plan can be developed and adjusted to the individual. The training consists of four modules called “warm-up”, “powerhouse”, “coordination”, “cool-down”. Those present together one training session. Each module consists of different components which differ in choice and load of exercise adapted to the user’s fitness level. In addition, users can choose to train with small sport equipment, such as Therband or Black Roll. The workout plans are developed considering the training theory of Weineck (2010).

8sense focuses on improving the back health. Therefore, better training includes specific exercises which are beneficial for a healthy back. Better training also includes Hatha Yoga by B.K.S. Iyengar, in order to holistically prevent back pain (Fuchs & Gerber,2018; Iyengar, 2014). So, Hatha Yoga serves as a stress management tool (Nosaka & Okamura,2015). A further module “campus” aims to improve the users’ health-related knowledge and thereby, their health literacy (Nutbeam,2000). Steffens et al. (2016) report that physical exercise in combination with health-related information prevent back pain more effectively compared to physical exercise without health-related information.

8sense – Better Lifting

The coaching system better lifting focusses on occupational groups which must lift heavy weights during their work, such as nurses or construction workers. These occupational groups are at high risk to suffer from discopathy (Pohrt et al., 2014). In order to support these occupational groups in preventing back pain and staying healthy despite their heavy work, the 8sense better lifting coach is currently developed.

References

Barone Gibbs, Bethany; Hergenroeder, Andrea L.; Perdomo, Sophy J.; Kowalsky, Robert J.; Delitto, Anthony; Jakicic, John M. (2018): Reducing sedentary behaviour to decrease chronic low back pain. The stand back randomised trial. In: Occupational and environmental medicine. DOI: 10.1136/oemed-2017-104732.

Becker (2016): Der Alltags-Fitness-Test. Lebenslang fit und selbstatänig bleiben. Hg. v. Deutscher Olympischer Sportbund. Franfurt am Main. Online verfügbar unter www.dosb.de, zuletzt geprüft am 20.02.2018.

Fuchs, Reinhard; Gerber, Markus (Hg.) (2018): Handbuch Stressregulation und Sport. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Springer Reference Psychologie). Online verfügbar unter http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-49322-9.

Huang, Mengjie; Hajizadeh, Khatereh; Gibson, Ian; Lee, Taeyong (2016): Analysis of compressive load on intervertebral joint in standing and sitting postures. In: Technology and health care : official journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine 24 (2), S. 215–223. DOI: 10.3233/THC-151100.

Iyengar, B. K. S. (2014): Yoga. The path to holistic health, the definitive step-by-step guide. Rev. & updated 2014 ed. New York: DK Publishing.

Nosaka, Michiyo; Okamura, Hitoshi (2015): A Single Session of an Integrated Yoga Program as a Stress Management Tool for School Employees. Comparison of Daily Practice and Nondaily Practice of a Yoga Therapy Program. In: Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) 21 (7), S. 444–449. DOI: 10.1089/acm.2014.0289.

Nutbeam, D. (2000): Health literacy as a public health goal. A challenge for contemporary health education and communication strategies into the 21st century. In: Health Promotion International 15 (3), S. 259–267. DOI: 10.1093/heapro/15.3.259.

Pape, John L.; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Sizer, Phillip S.; Matthijs, Omer C.; Browne, Kevin L.; Dewan, Birendra M.; Sobczak, Stéphane (2018): Increased spinal height using propped slouched sitting postures. Innovative ways to rehydrate intervertebral discs. In: Applied ergonomics 66, S. 9–17. DOI: 10.1016/j.apergo.2017.07.016.

Pohrt, U.; Kuma, B.; Pietsch, A.; Glaesener, J. J.; Fischer, K.; Schmidt, J.; Brandenburg, S. (2014): Evaluation der Individualpräventionsmaßnahmen bei berufsbedingten Erkrankungen der Lendenwirbelsäule (ESIBEL-Studie). In: Phys Rehab Kur Med 24 (04). DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1386598.

Weineck, Jürgen (2010): Optimales Training. Leistungsphysiologische Trainingslehre unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Kinder- und Jugendtrainings. 16., durchgesehene Auflage. Balingen: Spitta. Online verfügbar unter http://medizin.spitta.de/Sport/145_index.html.

Zemp, Roland; Fliesser, Michael; Wippert, Pia-Maria; Taylor, William R.; Lorenzetti, Silvio (2016): Occupational sitting behaviour and its relationship with back pain – A pilot study. In: Applied ergonomics 56, S. 84–91. DOI: 10.1016/j.apergo.2016.03.007.